Brake Pads for Rod Brakes
I bought these from a supplier in India. These brake pads are for a bicycle that use a rod-stirrup mechanism to brake by pulling up on the underside of the rim. These are the brakes found on some Vintage English Roadsters and the style of bicycle that is common in India and China (e.g. Flying Pigeon). Sold as a pair.
I'll let Sheldon Brown do the long explanation: